The Globalization Shift of Security in Australia

The Globalization Shift of Security in Australia

The Sides of Security

During the Israeli-Hezbollah War in 2006, thousands of Lebanese civilians and hundreds of military and civilian Israelis were killed. The whole world was all eyes in the tension with military weapons clearly used for destruction such as aerial bombardment and rockets launched from bunkers. The event was implicated as a global threat and issue to security. [1] At the same time, Australians living in Lebanon were stranded and how to evacuate them was an immediate security threat. The Australian government faced the pressure from the domestic politics and internal forces and imposed to get support from the Syrian government to help them flee the borders. The problem was that the bus that would take them out may or may not be hit by flying missiles or rockets. Within five hours of the journey where three buses were on a convoy to Amman and crossed borders of Syria, the 86 Australians were transported safely. [2]

 

lebanon
Lebanon during the time of war in 2006. (Google image)

 

The war had far-reaching effects of globalization for Australia. From the other side of the planet to the local demonstrations, the impact had made the issue interconnected through the Lebanese-Australians where they showed their disagreement with the government’s decision to support the war and how the government’s efforts to take the stranded Lebanese-Australians out of Lebanon was not quickly approved.

Even before the Lebanon war, the riots in Cronulla beach by Lebanese-Australians would actually show how much of the conflict of this war has entailed dramatic impact. Security, in the context of globalization, has extended its depths from the borders to the riots in beaches, and suggests that there is a significant “complication of the basic concept of ‘threat’ in international relations.” [3]

The same way as CNN tells magnified stories of conflict, let me present the shift of security globalization in Australia.


The Economic State of Security Globalization

The security policies in Australia have evolved from the 1970s until years after 2001 through the economic changes that have Australia engaged in the regional and international institutions. From the transformations of British withdrawal of Suez, opening of the United States with China to the opening of resources to neighboring nations such as Southeast Asia and China and the 9/11 attacks that had improved alliances with the United States. Its strong support with the United States was not only in the economic expansion in its trade and resources but also became evident with the security interests in policies and measures. [4]

Security Threats and Issues of Terrorism

From Victor D. Cha’s point of view, globalization has ignited the identity as a source of conflict. [5] It was the similar approach for Moffat’s approach to terrorism – it is an outcome of globalization. [6] The 9/11 attacks have changed the landscape of security in the national and international level. The ideologies and anti-West mentality have resulted in the war on terrorism. Certain terror groups have sprouted from different regions and used technology to influence such violent extremism around the world. Australia has faced the adversity and believes it is a security threat by supporting the war on terrorism. It is a mere fact that such events of terrorism may happen in the Australian soil, to which the practice and prioritization of security preventive measures were and are still being intensified.

australia-isis
The role of Australia in the fight against the war on terror. (Google image)

Some internal mobilization of possible extremism examples can be cited in my previous blog. Click here and browse through the section of Islamic extremism and security state of Australia. This section has given importance to the security state of Australia and influences of different Islamic extremism.
Another issue developed under the terrorism level is the use of technology through what is called cyberterrorism.


Cyberterrorism

Recent cyber attacks on the national consensus website – Australia Bureau of Statistics – is still being investigated. [7]

consensus
Consensus became unavailable due to the cyber attack

The previous attack last 2011, by probable Chinese military intelligence on hacking political documents and emails, is a similar hack on Australian sites which was considered to be of high potential ‘terrorist’ attack. There have been no admitted perpetrators, and even IBM, the developer of the software and website, had declared no comment for any involvement. Security in the privacy of data has already increased and grounds for sanctions and policies were aligned in with the threats it has affected globally. The usage of Internet through mobile and daily transactions have increased the possibility of attacks. This is why the government has formed a legislative bill to address the acts of cyberterrorism.

Security Legislation Amendment Terrorism Act of 2002 (SLAT) was created in effect of the terrorist attacks in 9/11, which included the definition of attacks on any ‘electronic systems.’ The argument in the act was that it will prosecute by lifetime imprisonment to those who induce harm by damaging infrastructure or network and cause serious problem or panic to the physical world. The Australian political sector had debates on how to identify such crime and if it has become too broad in its nature to pass the legislation. The case of “Operation Titstorm” from the group Anonymous, which was politically motivated with the Internet censorship, was a minor cyberattack with no major impacting damage that could serve as an act of terrorism. It was more of a protest rather than a destructive operation. It is very interesting how the evolution of cyberterrorism will keep pace with the globalization and how security itself will become virtually non-physical as well. According to Australian prime minister Malcolm Turnbull, the allocation of $230 million in cybersecurity was to help improve the capabilities to deter malicious cyberactivity threats. He also appointed the first cyber ambassador as a special adviser on any cyber security affairs. [8] The secretary of Department of the Prime Minister shares more on the strategy of cyber security in Australia in the video below.



Security Defense

The SLAT act is one of the defense legislation in response to the 9/11 attacks and future acts of terrorism. How else has Australia found means to prevent and avoid global security threats?

The Department of Defence has provided a framework through the Australian Security Policy, which has produced the Defence White Paper”. [9] It provides the outline of the strategies and governance in preparation for any threat to national security. It includes alliances with the United States, the capability of military workforce, and its approach to terrorism and cyberterrorism. It is very comprehensive and adapted to the globalization forces. To complement the “Defence White Paper”, the Australian National Security has launched a website which encompasses every security measure and even captures what Australia is currently doing to protect its country.

Below is the screenshot of the website.

website

Another interesting security measure is the Smartraveller website where it allows travelers to check for information on any security threat is happening in their destination. This is an added security feature that also supplements the mobile alerts and security hotline.

Australia in its shift to security

With the globalization phenomenon simply facing all the adversities in Australia, the country shifts its course of security from national to international strategies. The war in Lebanon, though a thousand miles away from Australia , has interfered with the government and the people’s reflection of the event, which had caused threats to security. The threats of terrorism, including cyberterrorism, are just some of the security threats Australia is consequently trying to prevent. However there are other existing threats on security such as transnational crime, drug and human trafficking, corruption, and even climate change that have also a need to be addressed. This is why Australia is shifting its priority to security in effect of globalization.

References:

[1] Pena, Charles. 2007. “In 2006 Lebanon War, Most crimes were Israeli.” Antiwar. August 17. Accessed October 4, 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.antiwar.com/pena/?articleid=11459
[2] Skehan, Craig, 2006. “Australians flee Lebanon by busload as others in Limbo.” The Sydney Morning Herald. July 18. Accessed October 4, 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/australians-flee-lebanon-by-busload/2006/07/17/1152988475267.html
[3] Cha, Victor D. 2000. “Globalization and the study of International Security”. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 37, No. 3. May.
[4] L’Estrange, Michael. 2014. “In a changing world, our security is vital.” The Australian. February 22. Accessed October 3, 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/opinion/in-a-changing-world-our-security-is-vital/story-e6frgd0x-1226834131061
[5] Cha, Victor D. 2000. “Globalization and the study of International Security”. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 37, No. 3. May.
[6] Moffat, Simon. 2007. “Globalisation, Terrorism and Cosmopolitan Australia.” Security Challenges. Accessed October 4, 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.regionalsecurity.org.au/Resources/Files/vol3no1Moffat.pdf
[7] Taylor, Rob. Rachael King. 2016. “Cyberattacks bring down Australia’s Only Census.” The Wallstreet Journal. August 9. Accessed October 4, 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.wsj.com/articles/australias-online-census-brought-down-by-cyberattacks-1470795518
[8] Aston, Heath. 2016. “Australia ready to hit back at foreign cyber attacks as $230m security strategy launches.” The Sydney Morning Herald. April 21. Accessed October 6, 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/australia-ready-to-hit-back-at-foreign-cyber-attacks-amid-new-security-strategy-20160420-goat26.html
[9] Reynolds, A. “What impact does contemporary globalisation have on Australian security policy?” Academia. Accessed October 3, 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/10365982/What_impact_does_contemporary_globalisation_have_on_Australian_security_policy

 

Advertisements

5 thoughts on “The Globalization Shift of Security in Australia

  1. Like Vctor D. Cha has adressed, globalization ignited in the world a source of conflict and Australia is not different. Since the world has changed, security policies also have been reviewed in order to combat international terrorism. The fact that Australia is shifting its priority regarding security is a example how this issues reaches all and for that reason international community have to work n a more cooperative way to at least minimize the negative effects of a globalized world.

    Like

  2. sushant700

    This blog is very informative . It has provided various new information about Australia security ,cyber security along with the threat of terrorism in the country . As you mentioned , I too believe that Australia , as being supporter of U.S and alliances during the war after 9/11 has created a terrorist attack threat to the country . Moreover, Sydney hostage crisis ,2014 commonly known as “Sydney Seize” can be taken as one of the example of terrorist attack in Australia . However , there has always been debate either to take this incident as terrorist attack or not . Australia as like mentioned in one of the video in the blog I believe that National cyber security strategy of Australia will help Aussies to surf safe internet and set example to theworld.

    Like

  3. I think it’s interesting that the Syrian government was the one used to help Australians flee the borders during the Israeli-Hezbollah war in 2006. I think it’s great that the Australian government cared enough about their 86 citizens to get them out the conflict, although many more Lebanese and Israelis were obviously victimized. It also intrigues me that there have been cyber attacks on the Australian Census website! I wonder what the motive behind that was? I feel like maybe they shouldn’t jump to conclusions that it’s related to terrorism, although that is a huge threat for them. This could be hindering them from discovering who the real perpetrator is.

    Like

  4. Pingback: The Role of Religion in Australian Globalization – The Aussies Towards Globalization

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s